What NANDA-approved nursing diagnoses may be relevant to this patient?

Suzanne Jones, 76-year-old patient with COPD is admitted to the ICU. Mrs. Jones is placed on mechanical ventilation to assist with her breathing. After 2 days on the ventilator, Mrs. Jones is extubated and then transferred to a medical-surgical unit. The medication regimen is adjusted during the hospitalization. Mrs. Jones is discharged home after 6 days. She and her family are pleased with the care she receive in the hospital. (Learning Objectives 3 and 6)

a. Describe the quality performance tools that may be used to demonstrate that the care and treatment rendered are both cost-efficient and of high quality.
b. Describe the quality performance tools that may be used to demonstrate that the nursing care utilized is evidence-based care and high quality, resulting in patient satisfaction and good patient outcomes.
Case Study, Chapter 2, Community-Based Nursing Practice
2. Mrs. Johnson, a 67-year-old female patient, has recently been discharged from the hospital following an admission for COPD. She has a past medical history of a colon resection related to acute diverticulitis. She developed a surgical wound infection that requires daily wet to dry wound packing and IV Zosyn. Mrs. Johnson was discharged with home oxygen. To manage her care at home, home care visits were ordered. (Learning Objective 5)

a. What would be involved in setting up the first home care visit?

b. Describe the nursing assessments and management that would occur during the visit.
Case Study, Chapter 3, Critical Thinking, Ethical Decision Making, and the Nursing Process
2. The nurse receives a 12-year-old girl from the operating room after an emergent appendectomy due to ruptured appendix. Upon arrival to the postanesthesia care unit, the patient is drowsy, but arousable to voice; she was extubated in the operating room and is receiving oxygen by facemask at 40%. She has two peripheral IVs in her left arm that are infusing Lactated Ringers solution at 100 mL/hr. A nasogastric tube is attached to low constant suction, and a small amount of aspirate is noted. She has a urinary catheter that is draining clear, yellow urine. Her abdominal dressing is dry and intact. Upon arousal, she complains of abdominal pain. (Learning Objective 5)

a. What NANDA-approved nursing diagnoses may be relevant to this patient?

b. Once the nursing diagnoses are determined, what steps does the nurse take to complete the Planning Phase of the Nursing Process?

c. What is the difference between nursing diagnoses and collaborative problems?

Case Study, Chapter 4, Health Education and Health Promotion

1. Mr. Smith, a 57-year-old patient, presents at a health fair asking questions about the age-appropriate health maintenance and promotion considerations he should be concerned about. He stated that he only goes to his physician when he is sick and the last time he saw his physician was 2 years ago when he had a sinus infection. (Learning Objectives 7 to 9)

a. What further assessment does the nurse need to make before designing a teaching plan?

b. What topics does the nurse need to include for Mr. Smith based on current medical recommendations?

c. Design a teaching plan that covers the topics.

Case Study, Chapter 5, Adult Health and Nutritional Assessment
2. The registered nurse prepares to conduct a nutritional assessment on Mrs. Varner, a 52-year-old Caucasian female who describes herself as “overweight most of my adult life.” The client states that her health is good. She works part time as a receptionist and volunteers about 10 hours per week in her church. The nurse obtains Mrs. Varner’s height as 64 inches and her weight as 165 pounds. (Learning Objective 8)

a. What is the rationale for computing body mass index? What is Mrs. Varner’s BMI?

b. Calculate her ideal body weight. What is your assessment of her BMI and weight?

c. Based on Mrs. Varner’s BMI and weight, the nurse measures her waist circumference. Describe the proper procedure for this assessment.

d. Mrs. Varner’s waist circumference is 38 inches. What is your assessment?

e. What laboratory values would the nurse review to evaluate Mrs. Varner’s protein levels?

Case Study, Chapter 6, Individual and Family Homeostasis, Stress, and Adaptation

1. Mr. Smith, a 52-year old patient, is admitted to the coronary care unit with the diagnosis of acute inferior myocardial infarction. The patient has a history of smoking two packs per day of cigarettes for 35 years, and he drinks a six-pack of beer on weekend nights, but does not drink the rest of the week. He is the sole financial support for his family. He is a consultant for a company and is out of town during week days. Over the past year, Mr. Smith has gained 20 pounds. He is 5 foot 6 inches, weighing 200 pounds. His diet consists mostly of fast food. He rarely exercises. His wife cares for their three teenage children. The eldest son, 17 years of age, totaled the family car when drinking and driving 2 days ago and he is in the local children’s hospital in the intensive care unit in critical condition. Mr. Smith developed chest pain and slumped over in his chair during an argument with his wife about their teenage daughter, who is 15 years of age and wanted to get birth control pills. The wife is in the waiting room while the nurses settle Mr. Smith into his room. The youngest son, 13 years of age, is at a friend’s house. The teenage daughter is staying at the bedside of the critically ill eldest son. The wife blames her eldest son for her husband’s heart attack and told the emergency department nurse that she does not care to see her son at all. (Learning Objectives 6, 10, and 11)

a. What maladaptive responses to stress may have contributed to Mr. Smith’s development of an illness?

b. Based on the case study, what family assessment data may be used to determine coping strategies being currently used by the family in crisis?

c. What nursing interventions should be used to promote effective coping for the patient and his family?
Case Study, Chapter 7, Overview of Transcultural Nursing

1. Mrs. Perez, 32 years of age, is a Hispanic patient who is admitted for early stage cancer of the uterus. The surgeon stated that in order to treat Mrs. Perez’s cancer successfully, the uterus will need to be removed surgically through a procedure called a simple hysterectomy leaving the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and vagina. The surgeon requests that the nurse make arrangements for an interpreter, so they can both use the interpreter’s services. The patient only speaks Spanish, but her mother and one of the patient’s sisters are bilingual. They are currently visiting the patient. Her husband is also visiting and he only speaks Spanish. The patient’s two children are with her sister Maria. The family stated they are devout Catholics and request to see a priest while in the hospital. Today is Ash Wednesday. (Learning Objective 4)

a. Which interpreter is the most appropriate choice to communicate with Mrs. Perez and why?

b. After critically analyzing the cultural influences, what nursing actions are appropriate for the patient?
Case Study, Chapter 8, Overview of Genetics and Genomics in Nursing

1. A patient who is 38 years of age is diagnosed with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, a hereditary disease that results in fluid-filled cysts occupying space in the kidneys. The cysts can interfere with the function of the kidney and may burst and cause bleeding inside the kidney. The patient with polycystic kidney disease may or may not have a berry aneurysm of a blood vessel in the brain that could lead to bleeding and death, cysts on the ovaries, and a mitral valve prolapse (in females) that can lead to dysrhythmias (irregular heart rhythms), or diverticula (outpouching of the bowel) that are susceptible to infection and inflammation and may lead to gastrointestinal bleeding. The patient is susceptible to retaining fluid in the abdomen so the abdomen is large to constipation, and to hypertension. There is no cure for the disease. The patient receives supportive care for the various symptoms or complications the patient may have. (Learning Objectives 1 to 3)

a. When explaining to the patient and family about polycystic kidney disease, the nurse should explain what characteristics about an autosomal dominant genetic disease?

b. How does variable expression of genetic characteristics play a role in the course of polycystic kidney disease and how can the nurse further predict the level of the disease?

c. Identify the roles of the nurse in integrating genetics in the nursing care provided for the patient.
Case Study, Chapter 9, Chronic Illness and Disability

1. Mr. Edwards is 20-year-old male patient who is admitted for treatment of recurring pyelonephritis (kidney infection) and surgical treatment of a urinary stricture, which has decreased the urinary stream. Mr. Edwards has paraplegia; he is paralyzed from the waist down secondary to an automobile accident when he was 16. He came by ambulance to the hospital, leaving his wheelchair and wheelchair pressure-relieving cushion at home. According to the nursing history, the patient is a nonsmoker and he does not drink alcohol or take any illegal drugs. (Learning Objective 5)

a. What nursing considerations should be made for Mr. Edwards related to his disability?

b. What health promotion and prevention education does Mr. Edwards need?

Case Study, Chapter 10, Principles and Practices of Rehabilitation

1. Mrs. Adams, 72 years of age, is admitted to the rehab unit with the diagnosis of stroke. The stroke affected the limbic area in the brain, which has caused the patient to have emotional labiality (her mood changes rapidly because she misinterprets situations). As a result of the emotional labiality, she sometimes refuses to be repositioned or to participate in physical or occupational therapy. She sometimes also refuses to eat and drink. The patient’s right side is paralyzed and flaccid. She has no feeling on her right side. She has reddened areas on her coccyx and both heels at least 1 cm in diameter that do not go away with repositioning. She is incontinent of urine and stool. She has problems with communication called global aphasia (difficulties understanding speech and the written word and difficulties with speaking and writing). She is 5 feet tall and weighs 178 pounds. She has a tendency to develop skin tears because her skin is thin, and she has several bandages on her arms. The family states they are concerned because the staff on the previous medical-surgical unit would drag their mother up in bed when she slid down. The staff would chart when their mother refused to be repositioned and then would not reposition her for hours. (Learning Objectives 2 and 4)

a. Explain the pathophysiology of the risk factors that predispose Mrs. Adams to developing pressure ulcers?

b. What nursing measures need to be instituted for Mrs. Adams based on the information presented in the case study?

Case Study, Chapter 11, Health Care of the Older Adult

1. The nurse working at the senior center notices Mrs. Jones, a 78-year-old, crying. The nurse approaches Mrs. Jones and asks if she needs help. Mrs. Jones states “I am so embarrassed. I had another accident and my pants are all wet. It’s like I’m a baby. I never should have come to the senior center.” (Learning Objectives 3 and 4)

a. What factors may be contributing to the urinary incontinence?

b. How should the nurse respond to Mrs. Jones?

Case Study, Chapter 12, Pain Management

1. Mr. Will, a 67-year-old patient, is postoperative day 2 after a coronary artery bypass graft operation to revascularize his coronary arteries that were significantly blocked. He has a midline incision of his chest and a 7-inch incision on the inner aspect of his right thigh where a saphenous vein graft was harvested and used to vascularize the blocked coronary artery. The surgeon ordered Oxycodone 5 mg every 4 hours PRN for moderate pain and Oxycodone 10 mg every 4 hours PRN for severe pain. (Learning Objectives 7 and 8)

a. Considering the patient’s age, what medication administration considerations should the nurse incorporate into the pain management plan and why?

b. What measures should the nurse provide the patient to prevent adverse effects of analgesic agents from occurring?

c. What nonpharmacologic pain management methods should the nurse teach to Mr. Will to assist with pain management?
Case Study, Chapter 13, Fluid and Electrolytes: Balance and Disturbance

1. Mrs. Dean is 75-year-old woman admitted to the hospital for a small bowel obstruction. Her medical history includes hypertension. Mrs. Dean is NPO. She has a nasogastric (NG) tube to low continuous suction. She has an IV of 0.9% NS at 83 mL/hr. Current medications include furosemide 20 mg daily and hydromorphone 0.2 mg every 4 hours, as needed for pain. The morning electrolytes reveal serum potassium of 3.2 mEq/L. (Learning Objective 4)

a. What are possible causes of a low potassium level?

b. What action should the nurse take in relation to the serum potassium level?

c. What clinical manifestations might the nurse assess in Mrs. Dean?
Case Study, Chapter 14, Shock and Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome

1. Adam Smith, 77 years of age, is a male patient who was admitted from a nursing home to the intensive care unit with septic shock secondary to urosepsis. The patient has a Foley catheter in place from the nursing home with cloudy greenish, yellow-colored urine with sediments. The nurse removes the catheter after obtaining a urine culture and replaces it with a condom catheter attached to a drainage bag since the patient has a history of urinary and bowel incontinence. The patient is confused, afebrile, and hypotensive with a blood pressure of 82/44 mm Hg. His respiratory rate is 28 breaths/min and the pulse oximeter reading is at 88% room air, so the physician ordered 2 to 4 L of oxygen per nasal cannula titrated to keep SaO2 greater than 90%. The patient responded to 2 L of oxygen per nasal cannula with a SaO2 of 92%. The patient has diarrhea. His blood glucose level is elevated at 160 mg/dL. The white blood count is 15,000 and the C-reactive protein, a marker for inflammation, is elevated. The patient is being treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics and norepinephrine (Levophed) beginning at 2 mcg/min and titrated to keep systolic blood pressure greater than 100 mm Hg. A subclavian triple lumen catheter was inserted and verified by chest x-ray for correct placement. An arterial line was placed in the right radial artery to closely monito