Instructions and grading: This exam will be graded on a 100-point scale. There are a total of 20 short answer questions, and each is worth 5 points (for a total of 100 points).
Read the following instructions carefully, so that you do not lose points by not following directions:
This is an open-note/open-book test, meaning you may look at your notes and course materials while completing this exam. You may also find your reading responses helpful. (One word of caution: I grade your reading responses on engagement with the text, not on the accuracy of your understanding of the author’s argument. A 20/20 reading response score does not necessarily mean that the same answer would get you full credit in response to an exam question).
This exam is NOT COLLABORATIVE. All work must be yours and yours alone, and you must not communicate with any other students regarding the exam from the time it is posted until the time it is due. If you communicate with other students about the exam during this time it will be considered cheating, which is a violation of academic integrity and will be reported to the university.
Answer all questions in your own words. Your answers must demonstrate that you understand the material, and if you simply use an article author’s words to answer the question it does not show your own understanding. You will lose points if you do not use your own words.
Limit your answers to 2 sentences. This means you need to think about your answers carefully, and be concise and to the point. I can only grade you on what you write down, not what you “mean” or imply, so be as specific as possible. Some questions may have more than one correct answer. You may get partial credit for partially correct answers. If you write longer answers, I will only grade the first two sentences, unless you put something incorrect in the extra sentences, in which case you will lose points. These are not essay questions.
To complete the exam: type your answer after each question, save the document, and upload your completed exam to Canvas before the Tuesday 11:00 am deadline. Make sure you upload the correct file.
Questions? I will be checking email and Canvas during the exam period, so you can contact me if you have a question or a problem.
Please read and sign this Honor Pledge by typing your name to confirm that you will not communicate with anyone about the exam: I understand that discussing exam questions or sharing exam answers is a form of academic misconduct and will be reported to the university. I pledge that I will complete this exam alone, and will not communicate or collaborate with anyone regarding exam questions or answers. If I need clarification regarding the exam or exam questions, I will contact the professor.
TYPE YOUR ANSWER AFTER EACH QUESTION. PLEASE DO NOT ERASE THE QUESTIONS. LIMIT YOUR ANSWERS TO 2 SENTENCES MAXIMUM.
What is the STS concept of “boundary work”? Explain this concept in your own words.
Describe a specific example of “boundary work” in science, based on the course materials (readings, lectures, or films).
STS scholarship has historically focused on science and technology in the United States, Western Europe, and sometimes Japan. Why is this a problem?
In your own words, explain Latour’s concept of “science in the making” [one sentence]. Support your answer with an example of “science in the making” [one sentence].
Describe one way in which the “conventional” view of science (also known as scientism) and the STS view of science (also known as constructivism) differ from one another.
Define the STS concept of a “black box” [one sentence] and describe an example of a scientific fact or process that has become “black boxed” [one sentence].
In Park Doing’s ethnography of a physics laboratory, scientists often praised especially skilled operators for their “lab hands.” Why did operators dislike this characterization of their skill?
In your own words, define the concept of “epistemic politics” [one sentence] and give an example of it [one sentence].
In the 1980s, scientists initially dismissed the concerns of ACT UP AIDS activists. But over time, scientists became more accepting and inclusive of activists’ perspectives on AIDS research. Describe one strategy that AIDS activists used to gain credibility among scientists.
Questions 10, 11, 12: Describe the three models of science communication named below. Be sure that you describe the role played by scientists and the public in each model.
Public Debate Model
Co-Production of Knowledge Model
David Turnbull argues that the process of producing scientific knowledge resembles the process of creating a map. Describe one way in which both science and map-making are socially shaped (in other words, shaped by human society).
Define “citizen science” and give one example of citizen science from the course materials (readings, films, or lecture).
Briefly describe how Rosalind Franklin’s work contributed to the discovery of the structure of DNA.
In Ottinger’s article “Buckets of Resistance,” how did the Louisiana state standard for measuring air quality exclude the air monitoring data collected by citizen scientists living near the refineries? (In other words, how did standards work to “police the boundaries” between expert and citizen science?)
In her article “Randomized Controlled Crime,” Vincanne Adams argues that randomized controlled trials (RCTs) force Tibetan medicine to play by the “house rules” of Western medicine (biomedicine). Explain one of these “house rules” in your own words, and why it is unfair to Tibetan Medicine.
In her article, “The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change” Naomi Oreskes argues that a consilience of the evidence supports the conclusion that anthropogenic climate change is happening. In making this argument, does she take a conventional approach to science (“scientism”) or a constructivist (STS) approach? Explain why you answered the way you did.
In your own words, define the concept of “symbolic capital” [one sentence]. Why do scientists have more symbolic capital than technicians or operators? [one sentence]
In a recent New York Times opinion piece, one scientist stated that the March for Science was a bad idea because it will “trivialize and politicize the science we care so much about.” Describe why this scientists’ view is incompatible with an STS (constructivist) understanding of the relationship between science and politics.
CONGRATS, YOU HAVE FINISHED THE EXAM! PLEASE SAVE THIS DOCUMENT AND UPLOAD IT TO CANVAS VIA THE ASSIGNMENT LINK.