What is the positive school of criminology, and what is the historical importance of positivism?

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• Early Biological Perspectives on Criminal Behavior
What’s the difference between historical biological and contemporary biosocial theories of crime? What basic principals characterize biological theories of crime causations? How do such theories differ from other perspectives that attempt to explain the same phenomena? What is the positive school of criminology, and what is the historical importance of positivism?

• Biosocial and Other Contemporary Perspective
How strong are researches finding linking genetics and crime? What have research studies in the field of genetics had to say about possible causes of crime? What is the gender ratio problem in criminology? What traditional explanations had been offered for the problem? What is the gender ratio problem not a problem from the point of view of biosocial criminology?

• Psychological and psychiatric foundations of Criminal Behavior
What are the major principles of psychological perspective s on criminal behavior? What were some early psychological and psychiatric theories offered to explain criminality? How does personality explain criminality? What is moral development theory and how does it explain crime.

• Social Structure Theory
What is the nature of sociological theorizing? What are the assumptions on which sociological perspectives on crime causation rest? What do sociologists mean by the term social structure? How might the organization and structure of a society contribute to criminality?

• Theories of Social Process and Social Development
What does the process of social interaction contribute to criminal behavior? What kinds of social policy initiatives might be based on social process theories of crimes causation? What are the shortcomings of the social process perspective? What are the central concepts of social development theories?

• Social Conflict Theory

What three analytical perspectives on law and social order? What are the central tenets of radical criminology? What are the short comings? What five emerging conflict perspectives discussed in this chapter purport to explain crime and criminality?

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