To what extent would you agree with the view that the social and economic policies of Attaturk had as many failures as successes?
Critical analysis is important here. Answers should not merely narrate Attaturk’s policies. Social and modernising aspects could include the abolition of Caliphate, control of Ulema, civil law code to replace Sharia, equal rights for women, adoption of Gregorian calendar,banning of fez, all designed to westernise and modernise Turkey, but many failed to achieve their objectives.
Under Attaturk, President for life, Turkey essentially a one-party state, modernisation had little impact in rural areas, where society was more traditional and Islam remained influential.
Turkey was still economically deprived, with Turkish capitalism underdeveloped. The state, aided by the Soviet loans and expertise developed consumer industries e.g. textiles; five year plans tried, but export markets were hit by the Great Depression.
Answers that focus on social and economic policies and successes and failure will probably merit [11 to 13 marks] and
[14 to 16 marks] for those who analyse them.
A narrative and largely undiscriminating account of the policies would score [8 to 10 marks].