How many governments are there in the United States?

Which of the following is NOT a task of budgeting?
a. Controlling the use of public resources
b. Promoting accountability
c. Insuring the reelection of incumbents
d. Promoting efficiency and effectiveness
_____ ___ are when people in one state or locality are affected by the decisions of another state or locality.
a. Unfortunalities
b. Externalities
c. Miscalculations
d. Exaggerations
_____ How many governments are there in the United States?
a. 51
b. 535
c. 8, 351
d. 87,504
_____ Federal programs whose expenditures are mandated by law are called
a. indispensable expenses.
b. essential functions.
c. mandatory programs.
d. hold-harmless bureaus.
_____ The contention that social and economic changes encourage government expansion is referred to as
a. Simpson’s Postulation.
b. Thompson’s Theory
c. Lasario’s Theorem
d. Wagner’s Law
_____ Using the current budget as a rough guide to decisions for next year’s budget and focus most attention on relatively modest budgetary changes is
a. progressivism.
b. incrementalism.
c. naturalism.
d. directionalism.
_____ The budget request review process used by the Bureau of the Budget is called
a. central clearance.
b. concentric evaluation.
c. rational review.
d. means testing.
_____ A relatively simple budgetary format that has a few broad categories, each of which is covered by a large chunk of money, is called
a. fat-city budget.
b. zero-sum budget.
c. lump sum budget.
d. expeditious budget.
_____ The single largest share of local spending goes for
a. education.
b. public safety.
c. public works.
d. parks and recreation.
_____ According to the text, the single largest source of local revenue is
a. property tax.
b. charges and fees.
c. speeding tickets.
d. aid from other levels of government.
_____ People who are seeking funds for a new program may ask for a small amount of money for the first year and a somewhat larger amount in each succeeding year rather than asking for a huge sum of money in the first year. This technique is called
a. lumbering.
b. filibustering.
c. camel’s nose.
d. pork barreling.
_____ Identify the Act that established a series of gradually decreasing budget deficit targets for 1986 through 1990 and a target of a balanced budget in 1991.
a. Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act
b. Reagan Rate Reduction Act
c. Balanced Budget Act
d. Reid-Pelosi Wisdom Act
_____ The 20th century … witnessed a gradual, though erratic, tendency to diminish the role of chief executives in the development of budget proposals.
a. True
b. False
_____ Although public and private budgeting are similar in many respects, public budgeting is often more controversial, more open to multiple influences, and more heavily regulated than private budgeting.
a. True
b. False
_____ What percent of the United States’ Gross Domestic Product is general government current receipts?
a. 32
b. 43
c. 50
d. 62
_____ A revenue loss attributable to provisions of the Federal tax law which allow a special exclusion, exemption, or deduction from gross income or which provide a special credit, a preferential rate of tax, or a deferral of liability is a
a. income substitute.
b. tax expenditure.
c. equivalent revenue.
d. tax swap.
_____ For every dollar taken in by the typical state lottery, more than ___ cents is spent on prizes and administration.
a. 25
b. 40
c. 60
d. 70
_____ In selecting one course of action, we may be forfeiting the opportunity to do something else is
a. alternative pricing.
b. a differential calculation.
c. forgiven cost.
d. opportunity cost.
_____ One important type of policy analysis that seeks to determine the nature, severity, and extent of a problem or group of related problems is a(n)
a. policy detailing.
b. aspirational addendum.
c. needs assessment.
d. priority discovery.
_____ Forecasting that assumes that the future will be essentially the same as the present is
a. stupid.
b. naïve projection.
c. future assurance projection.
d. prologue projection.