Explain how the participants expectations may have influenced the results of the study.

The participant in the Kandris and Moulds study was treated for
depression using an imaginal exposure approach. Explain how the
participant’s expectations may have influenced the results of the study.
(Word limit: 100 words) (4 marks)

(b) The authors state that they lacked the means to control for ‘nonspecific
treatment factors’ in their study. They are implying that the response to
the treatment may be partly or wholly due to a factor unrelated to the
imaginal exposure. Using supporting information from SDK228,
describe an aspect of this study that may have affected depression and/or
mood, other than the imaginal exposure. (Word limit: 100 words)

(4 marks)

(c) Describe in detail whether the measures used in the study were
objective, subjective or both, giVing reasons for your answer. (Word
limit: 200 words) (6 marks)

(d) There are several brain chemicals mentioned in SDK228 that may be
implicated in depression and/or mood. Identify two of these chemicals
and describe the evidence from SDK228 that supports the idea that they
may be implicated in mood. Select one of these chemicals and explain
how activity at the synapse would be expected to change in the context
of an improvement in mood. (Word limit: 200 words) (8 marks)

(e) Make four comparisons between the BDI measures shown in Table l of
the article and those shown in SDK228, Book 1, Figure 3.6(b), on the
impact of exercise, including approximate data in your comparisons. For
each study, you should consider the scores at each stage of treatment and
the percentage changes from the initial scores. From the comparisons
you have made, which intervention seems to be the most effective for
depression? Why do you think this conclusion might not be justified?