Project Assignment: Review your State Government?s website and search for its official Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) Form. Along with the form will be information and instructions regarding the form. In addition, research three area hospitals to determine if they provide separate DNR forms. Then, perform additional research regarding DNR and prepare your Final Paper by analyzing the issues through these steps:
Analyze the requirements of your State Government?s DNR.
Identify the requirements of the three hospital?s DNRs.
Examine the differences and similarities between the state?s and the three hospital?s DNR requirements, and address the following questions:
What are they?
Which one should you follow?
Explain how a DNR is applied if a patient is under hospice care and EMTs are called.
Health Care Ethics & Medical Law
Collopy, K., & Friese, G. (2010). HOSPICE and DNR care. EMS Magazine, 39(8), 52-57.
The article covers the topic of what the EMS should do when called in a hospice care environment. It also clarifies when the DNR orders should take effect, which is at the time of the arrest. Additionally, the article mentions how the EMS can apply some pain management on a hospice patient with a DNR orders. Finally, this article also addresses when to disregard a DNR order which is if the patient state themselves that do not want to go forward with the order, if there are any signs of tampering on the document or bracelet, and if patient is pregnant.
Darr, K. (1996). Nexus: ethics, law & management. Availability and use of advance directives. Hospital Topics, 74(3), 4-7.
This journal article sheds some more light on the ethical issues surrounding DNR, one of them being how DNR orders can be misunderstood and this could be lack of patient-physician communication that can help shape the patient?s decision with their health. The article also mentioned how some hospitals don?t promote the advance directive which affect the incompletion of advanced directives, where DNR is a part of as well. This article can be used as an example of an elements that affect the miscommunication of DNR orders.
Eckberg, E. (1998). The continuing ethical dilemma of the do-not-resuscitate order. AORN Journal, 67(4), 783-790. doi:10.1016/S0001-2092(06)62642-2
This journal article addresses the ethical dilemma of a do not resuscitate order (DNR). Within the article, the author gave an example scenario where a DNR may be confusing to the standard of care that is needed for the patient. In addition, the article also covers a very brief history of the DNR and as well as the principles that are influencing the dilemmas. In conclusion, the author described the DNR order as a vague thing and how I requires a clarification.
Murphy, P., & Price, D. (2007). Ethics in practice. How to avoid DNR miscommunications. Nursing Management, 38(3), 17-20.
The articles discusses the miscommunications that can happen with DNR orders. This article also listed some way to prevent or decrease the probability of miscommunicating which I will be using as a source for how to improve the understand of such orders.
Olver, I., & Eliott, J. A. (2008). The perceptions of do-not-resuscitate policies of dying patients with cancer. Psycho-Oncology, 17(4), 347-353. doi:10.1002/pon.1246
This article is about how DNR orders although, can be difficult to the family members, and medical providers, it is seen as a positive thing for the patient, as they consider it as a natural death. This was shown through the research that was conducted for 28 patients that were within 3 months from dying. This shows that DNR orders are also a way to keep the dignity of the patient and to have a final autonomy on their life and health.
Salladay, S. (1998). Ethical problems. DNR decisions: absentee surrogate. Nursing, 28(6), 74.
This articles presents several scenarios where an ethical dilemma and how to properly handle them. Most of the scenarios have something to do with a patient not being able to make a decision for him/herself. I will be using this source to provide example of the ethical dilemmas associated with the DNR order.