# determine the prevalence of depression and factors associated with depression among women

This test consists of TWO sections.== The FIRST SECTION includes 16 QUESTIONS [41 POINTS]== The SECOND SECTION includes questions related to analyzing, and interpreting data, and summarizing the findings and its impact on nursing practice (FIVEQUESTIONS=19 POINTS). Download and use the filesample_data_FINAL_EXAM_SUMMER_2014.savThe total score is 60 points (30% of the grade).SECTION 1: Below is the list of QUESTIONS.Use the space assigned after each question for your answer. All the questions must be answered and show your calculations and write your justifications for fullcredit.Q1. Which of the following best describes the design where subjects are sampled by disease status and is often used when the investigator is interested in rarediseases? (Choose one best answer and provide rationale). (TWO POINTS)A. intervention trialB. case control studyC. retrospective cohortD. ecologic studyE. none of the aboveQ2. What statistical method(s) a researcher can use to determine if the mean body mass index of the population is the same for three groups of subjects (group1=dietrestriction; group2=exercise; group3=none). (EACH IS TWO POINTS =TOTAL=SIX POINTS)A. Statistical test is ________________B. Null Hypothesis is _____________________C. Alternative hypothesis is ___________________Q3. ? represents the predicted value of y calculated using the equation ? = a + bx. In the formula, SBP = 34 + 0.2 x; where x = value of postnatal age (hours) for theneonates ?? 1,000 grams? What is the value of the intercept (a)? What is the value of the slope (b)? (TWO POINTS)Q4. Incidence rates from cervical cancer in people aged 50 years or older are as follows:Non-smoker 50 per 100,000 per yearSmoker 140 per 100,000 per yearCalculate and interpret the following:A. Relative risk of smokers versus non-smokers (TWO POINTS)Q5. An equation indicating that systolic blood pressure or SBP = 30 + 0.4x. If the value of x is postnatal age of 20 hours, what is the value for ? or SBP forneonates ?? 1,000 grams? Show your calculations. (TWO POINTS)Q6. Which of the following approaches can be used to compare the relative benefits of two alternative pharmacologic treatments for chest disease? (TWO POINTS)a. case-control studyb. screeningc. cohort studyd. randomized controlled clinical trialQ7. Among 600 persons with negative screening tests for HIV antibody, 592 are negative with HIV virus. The most appropriate measure is: (TWO POINT)a. predictive value negativeb. sensitivityc. specificityd. predictive value positiveQ8. Please interpret the following: A study showed that the attributable fraction of the exposure is 85%. (TWO POINTS)_____________________________________________________________Q9. The death rates from various conditions are often compared across geographic areas. These comparisons are usually based on directly age-standardized mortalityrates. Which of the following best describes what is meant by an age-standardized rate created by the direct method? (Choose one best answer and provide rationale).(TWO POINT)A. The number of events in each age stratum of a standard population is used to create a weighted average rate.B. The event rates in each age stratum in the standard population are used to create a weighted average rate.C. The event rates in the geographic area of interest are compared to the event rates of a standard population to create a summary rate that is a weightedaverage.D. The event rates in the geographic area of interest are applied to the age-stratum sizes of a standard population to create a rate that is a weighted average.Q10. You have been told that there is an outbreak of gastroenteritis in California. What are the steps that you will follow to investigate this outbreak? (FIVE POINTS)Q11. Investigators conducted a retrospective cohort study to investigate an outbreak. Use the results of the following table to answer the following questions:Food Ate Did not eatIll Well AR Ill Well AR RRPotato Salad 35 17 67.3 17 22 43.6 1.5Chicken 50 12 80.6 10 35 22.2 3.6Spinach 25 10 71.4 20 30 40.0 1.8Salad 15 11 57.7 16 12 57.1 1.0Fruits 8 30 21.1 6 18 25.0 0.8What is the most likely food that causes this outbreak? Why? Explain (FOUR POINTS)Q12. The strength of an association is one of the criteria for evaluating the cause and effect relationship between an exposure and outcome. Which of the following isa measure of the strength of association? (Choose one best answer and provide rationale). (TWO POINT)A. the ratio of odds of exposure among cases to the odds of exposure among the non-casesB. incidence rate among the exposedC. cumulative incidence among the exposedD. odds of disease among exposed relative to the prevalence of exposure in the source populationE. none of the aboveQ13. Calculate the percentage of variance explained for correlation (r) = 0.80.Is this correlation clinically important? Provide a rationale for your answer (TWO POINTS).Q14. Which of the following best describes the study design that can be either retrospective or prospective and is often used when the investigators are interested inrare exposures? (Choose one best answer and provide rationale). (TWO POINTS)A. intervention trialsB. prevalence studiesC. case control studyD. cohort studiesE. none of the aboveQ15. Consider two values, correlation ((r) = 0.07 and (r) = 0.6. Describe them in relationship to each other. Describe the clinical importance of both (r) values (TWOPOINTS).[Hint: calculate the coefficient of determination (r square for each correlation)].Q16. In a screening program, a patient asked the doctor the following question: given that I have a POSITIVE test result, what is the chance that I do have thedisease. (TWO POINTS) Which of the following answer this question?a. Sensitivityb. Negative predictive valuec. Specificityd. Positive predictive valuee. All of the aboveSECTION 2: Please use the SPSS data set sample_data_FINAL_EXAM_SPRING_2014.sav(Attached) and analyze it to answer the following questions: (You need to interpret the results)BACKGROUND OF THE STUDYThe data in the dataset come from a longitudinal study of low-income women in four urban communities. In the original study, extensive information was collected in1999 from about 4,000 women. A major purpose of the study was to understand the life trajectories of these women and their children during a period of major changes tosocial policies affecting poor people in the United States. The sample was randomly selected from women who, in 1995, were single mothers receiving cash welfareassistance in the four cities. All data were collected by means of 90-minute in-person interviews in either English or Spanish in the study participants homes.Professional interviewers from a survey research firm, specially trained for this study, collected the data.Our objectives are:1- To determine the prevalence of depression and factors associated with depression among women =>19 years old.2. To determine the predictors of Mental Health Status among women =>19 years old.Questions 17 and 18 are related to objective 1 (to determine the prevalence of depression and factors associated with depression among women =>19 years old).Q17a. Determine the prevalence of depression [ONE POINT] Do frequency for the variable: Depression status (DEPRESSION_0_1) interpret the findingQ17b. Describe the age of the population in years and the mental health status scores [TWO POINTS] Do descriptive statistics for the variables: age and Mental Health Status score (sf12ment) interpret the findingsQ17c. Determine the variation of the depression status by the demographics and health status variables [TWO POINTS] Do cross tabulation of the following variables BY Depression status (DEPRESSION_0_1):Race/ethnicity (racethn); education status (educatn); currently employed (worknow); marital status (marital); poverty level (poverty); Poor health self (poorhlth) What is the name of the statistical test that you will use? Interpret the findings Develop one table in Microsoft word that includes name of the variable, number and percent (see example below).Variables TotalNumber (%) DepressedNumber (%) Not DepressedNumber (%) p-valueRace/EthnicityEducationQ18. Determine which of the following variable is associated with depression status status (DEPRESSION_0_1) after adjusting for the other variables:Age in years (Age); Black; Hispanic; education level (EDUCATION_GROUP); currently employed (worknow); Never Married; poverty level (poverty); and Poor health self(poorhlth). (TWO POINTS)a. Do multiple logistic regression and determine if there are statistically significant associations between the outcome (dependent variable) and the independentvariables. Interpret the results. Develop one table in Microsoft word that includes name of the variable, adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval, and p-value (see example below).Variables Adjusted Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval) P-valueAge?..Questions 19 and 20 are related to objective 2 (to determine the predictors of Mental Health Status among women aged 19 years and older).Q19. Determine and interpret variation of the Mental Health Status score (sf12ment) by the following variables: Race/ethnicity (racethn); education status (educatn);currently employed (worknow); marital status (marital); poverty level (poverty); Poor health self (poorhlth) (THREE POINTS)A. Use compare means and select applicable test statistics and determine if there is a statistically significant difference in the Mental Health Status score(sf12ment) by the following variables: Race/ethnicity (racethn); education status (educatn); currently employed (worknow); marital status (marital); poverty level(poverty); Poor health self (poorhlth) Develop one table in Microsoft word that includes name of the variable, mean and standard deviation of the mental health status score, p-value, (see examplebelow).Variables Mental Health Status ScoreMean (Standard Deviation) p-valueRace/ethnicity ?Q20. Determine which of the following variable are significant predictors of Mental Health Status score (sf12ment) : Age in years (Age); Black; Hispanic; educationlevel (EDUCATION_GROUP); currently employed (worknow); Never Married; poverty level (poverty); and Poor health self (poorhlth). (THREE POINTS)a. Do multiple linear regression and determine if any of these variables is showing statistical significance.b. Interpret the findings. Develop one table in Microsoft word that includes name of the variable, Beta Coefficient [B] and standard error (see example below).Variables Beta Coefficient [B] (Standard Error) P-valueAge (years)?..Q21. Write a half to one page report of the study and its implications on nursing practice. (SIX POINTS) The summary should include the following: Objectives: [ONE POINT] Methods: [ONE POINT] Results: [TWO POINTS] Conclusions and impact on nursing practice [TWO POINTS]Click here for more on this paper??.Click here to have a similar paper done for you by one of our writers within the set deadline at a discounted