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Please note that each and every assignment has its own word limit.

Cross-sectional studies are a descriptive observational study that observes and evaluates the outcome and exposure of a study simultaneously. For example, a descriptive cross-sectional study would be finding out the prevalence of women with breast cancer. The first step would to find a sample of 4 women with similar characteristics but different age groups. Afterward, a calculation of the percentage of how many women within these groups have breast cancer will be collected. A weakness of the cross-sectional studies is the various types of bias that accumulate within the study, such as temporal bias and survival/selection bias. Temporal bias is when the diseases are the causes of the exposure and survival bias is when the study includes the survivors, but not the subjects that do not exist. For example, observing how many cats land on their feet when they fall from 20 feet. The study would include all the cats that survived and landed on their feet but not those who died or were seriously injured. An advantage of the cross-sectional study is its ability to assess the prevalence of both the outcome and the exposure, the study is inexpensive, and the procedure is fast to conduct and is used for monitoring, evaluating and planning (Setia, 2016; Celentano& Szklo, 2019).

Survival can influence the association between exposure and the diseases in terms of measurement with a cross-sectional study. For example, if the survival duration rate is longer, then there is an increased probability that the person will be included in the prevalence proportion compared to those with a shorter duration with the diseases. Therefore, the prevalence rate will be high, because the individuals are being exposed to the diseases for a longer duration, so they are being incorporated into the prevalence calculation. Additionally, the incident rate will be low because there is a reduction in new cases because people are living longer with the diseases at the time the study was conducted.


Celentano, D. D., & Szklo, M. (2019). Gordis epidemiology (6th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier. ISBN-13: 9780323552295

Setia, S. (2016). Methodology Series Module 3: Cross-Sectional Studies. Indian Journal of Dermatology, 61(3), 261-264. Doi: 10.4103/0019-5154.182410

Respond to the bold paragraph ABOVE by using one of the option below… in APA format with At least two references and a minimum of 200 words….. .(The List of References should not be older than 2016 and should not be included in the word count.)

  • Ask a probing question.
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  • Offer and support an opinion.

  • Validate an idea with your own experience.
  • Make a suggestion.
  • Expand on your colleague’s posting.

Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.

It is important that you cover all the topics identified in the assignment. Covering the topic does not mean mentioning the topic BUT presenting an explanation from the context of ethics and the readings for this class

To get maximum points you need to follow the requirements listed for this assignments 1) look at the word/page limits 2) review and follow APA rules 3) create subheadings to identify the key sections you are presenting and 4) Free from typographical and sentence construction errors.


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