Shouldnt we reject black solidarity and embrace an interracial solidarity movement against anti-black racism?

Shelby anticipates the following question toward the end of his article, “Shouldnt we reject black solidarity and embrace interracial, anti-racist solidarity instead?”
(a) Explain what this question means (e.g., explain what ‘black solidarity as well as ‘interracial solidarity mean in this context).
(b) How does Shelby respond to this rhetorical question/challenge? Are his arguments here persuasive? Offer some critical discussion (e.g., Which is the strongest consideration? What does his discussion establish? Can his arguments be strengthened?)
(c) Briefly consider how this exchange between Shelby and his imagined interlocutor would be different (if at all) if the question posed had been, “Shouldnt we reject black solidarity and embrace an interracial solidarity movement against anti-black racism?”
Your paper should be no longer than 4 pages (and not under 3 pages).
Your paper should be spell-checked and proofread for grammatical correctness.
Use 12pt font, Times New Roman, and double-spacing.
Do not cite any sources outside of the material assigned.
Ethics 112 (January 2002): 231–266
! 2002 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved. 0014-1704/2002/11202-
Foundations of Black Solidarity: Collective
Identity or Common Oppression?*
Tommie Shelby
We are one with you under the ban of prejudice and proscription—
one with you under the slander of inferiority—one with you
in social and political disfranchisement. What you suffer, we suffer;
what you endure, we endure. We are indissolubly united, and must
fall or flourish together. [Frederick Douglass]1
In an effort to liberate blacks from the burden of racial oppression,
black leaders have frequently called on black Americans to become a
more unified collective agent for social change.2 And while there are
* Sincere and warm thanks go to my friends and colleagues who commented on
previous drafts of this essay, including Linda Alcoff, Anthony Appiah, Lawrie Balfour, Sylvia
Berryman, Martha Biondi, Bernard Boxill, Derrick Darby, Dan Farrell, Dena Gilby, Robert
Gooding-Williams, Jennifer Hochschild, Bill Lawson, Sarah Loper, Ron Mallon, Howard
McGary, Charles Mills, Lucius Outlaw, Naomi Pabst, John Pittman, Diana Raffman, Kathleen
Schmidt, and Laurence Thomas. I would also like to thank an anonymous reviewer
for Ethics, as well as the editors of the journal. Earlier versions of the essay were presented
at Howard University, Harvard University, the Du Bois Scholars Institute in New Jersey,
the Collegium for African American Research Biannual Conference, and a special session
of the APA Pacific sponsored by the Committee on Blacks in Philosophy. I am grateful to
the audiences at these venues.