How did corporations in the United States obtain civil rights?

Answer question number 1. Also answer one more question (2, 3, 4, 4, or 6). In answering the questions below, try to draw upon readings and class discussions from throughout the course. 1. Using at least three empirical examples, explain how the production of human rights contributes to inequalities across the global North and South. Then, drawing upon our class readings and discussions, suggest some ideas for ameliorating such inequalities. 2. Identify at least four approaches for understanding human rights and global justice. Then offer an example of each approach that illustrates the differences between these approaches. 3. How did corporations in the United States obtain civil rights? Should Corporations have human rights? Explain your answer. 4. Drawing upon Bryan Turner, Gershon Shafir, and Smith & Bakker, explain the difference between citizenship and transnational citizenship. Then explain the how concept of transnational citizenship can contribute to a more egalitarian development of human rights. 5. Arjun Appadurai argues that research should be a human right. What does he mean by this? Can you describe what such a right to research might in practice look like? What does Appadurai suggest would be the implication(s) of having such a right (e.g., might this contribute to greater social equality, or shared prosperity, or reduced levels of violent conflict)? Finally, what do you think would be the implications of having such a right? 6. Drawing upon our readings of Pellow and Brulle, as well as Agyeman and Evans, explain the difference between the concepts of “environmental justice” and “just sustainability.” How do environmental discourses drawing on each of these concepts of justice differently contribute to the development of human rights discourse?