Describe one way in which nurses can encourage patients and their family members to become empowered.
Directions: Answer the following questions using critical-thinking. All answers must be typed into the document
1. Describe role of the rapid response team (RRT). Describe three patient changes where it would be appropriate for the nurse to notify the RRT.
2. QSEN identified patient-centered care as a nursing competency. Describe one way in which nurses can encourage patients and their family members to become empowered. How will this make the healthcare experience safer?
3. Discuss the role of activity/mobility in the older adults life. Discuss implications of poor physical functioning.
4. For each of the SPICES categories/conditions, describe one physiological age-related change that may be responsible for the condition.
5. Discuss the implications of treatment of pain with an opioid: side effects, adverse effects, nursing assessment.
6. Discuss the following concepts:
a. Neuropathic vs. nociceptive pain
b. Referred vs. radiating pain
Please answer the questions from those key points. No citation,no outside sources,and no references.Instructor stated ” Summarize on your own english without copy from key point”
Ignatavicius: Medical-Surgical Nursing, 8th Edition
Chapter 01: Introduction to Medical-Surgical Nursing Practice
• One of the most successful IHI initiatives was the creation of the Rapid Response Team (RRT), also called the Medical Emergency Team (MET).
o Rapid Response Teams are one initiative to save lives and decrease the risk for patient harm before a respiratory or cardiac arrest occurs.
o Members of such a team are critical care experts who are on-site and available at any time to respond to calls for assistance.
o Early clinical changes in condition occur in most patients for up to 48 hours before a “Code Blue.”
o Therefore, observe for, document, and communicate early indicators of patient decline, including decreasing blood pressure, increasing heart rate, and changes in mental status.
Quality and Safety Education for Nurses Core Competencies
• The six core competencies for health care professionals based on research by the Institute of Medicine (IOM; http://iom.edu/) and Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN; http://www.qsen.org/) are: PATIENT-CENTERED CARE, TEAMWORK AND COLLABORATION, EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE, QUALITY IMPROVEMENT, INFORMATICS, and SAFETY.
• Nurses, as advocates for the patient and family, teach them how to be empowered and have more control over their care.
• The Joint Commission recently started a Speak Up™ campaign to provide information to patients and families to increase their empowerment.
• The three ethical principles to consider when making clinical decisions are self-determination, beneficence, and justice.
• Respect for people is one of six basic ethical principles that nurses and other health care professionals should use as a basis for clinical decision making.
• Respect implies that patients are treated as autonomous individuals capable of making informed decisions about their care.
• Patient autonomy is referred to as self-determination or self-management.
• The second ethical principle is beneficence, which emphasizes the importance of preventing harm and assuring the patients well-being.
• Nonmaleficence follows the QSEN core competency of safety, ensuring patient SAFETY and preventing harm.
Chapter 02: Common Health Problems of Older Adults
Priority concepts applied in this chapter include NUTRITION, MOBILITY, SENSORY PERCEPTION, COGNITION, ELIMINATION, and TISSUE INTEGRITY.
• Learning about the special needs of older adults is important for health care professionals in a variety of settings.
• The percentage of people older than age 65 years in the United States is about 13%.
• The four subgroups of the older adult population are the young old, middle old, old old, and elite old.
• The fastest growing subgroup is the old old, sometimes referred to as the “advanced older adult” population. Members of this subgroup are sometimes referred to as the “frail elderly,” although a number of 85- to 95-year-olds are very healthy.
• Frailty is a clinical syndrome in which the older adult has unintentional weight loss, weakness and exhaustion, and slowed physical activity, including walking. Frail elders are also at high risk for adverse outcomes.
• The vast majority of older adults live in the community at home or within an environment that offers assistance. Only 5% are in long-term care (LTC).
• Considerations of multiple older adult health issues in other types of institutions (prisons) include alcohol and substance abuse and poor NUTRITION.
• The number of homeless older adults, including veterans of war, continues to rise. These individuals are often faced with chronic health problems, including mental/behavioral disorders.
HEALTH ISSUES FOR OLDER ADULTS IN COMMUNITY-BASED SETTINGS
• Health status can affect the ability to perform daily activities and participate in social activities.
• Increased dependence on others may have a negative effect on morale and life satisfaction.
• Loss of autonomy is a painful event with far-reaching effects.
• Older adults often experience personal losses that can affect their sense of control over their lives.
• Many older adults are not prepared for retirement in view of increased expenses and income that is not adequate to meet basic needs, health care treatments, and medications.
• Many are discharged from health care facilities and require home health services or live in long-term care settings.
• Coordinate care by collaborating with members of the health care team when providing care to older adults in the community or inpatient setting.
• Provide information regarding community resources for older adults to help them meet their basic needs.
• Common health issues and geriatric syndromes affecting the older adults include decreased nutrition and hydration, decreased mobility, stress and loss, accidents, drug use and misuse, mental health/cognition problems (including substance abuse), and elder neglect and abuse.
• Decreased NUTRITION and hydration are two health problems experienced by older adults.
o Reduced income, chronic disease, fatigue, and decreased ability to perform activities of daily living are other factors that contribute to inadequate nutrition among older adults.
o Some older adults are at risk for geriatric failure to thrive (GFTT)—a complex syndrome including under-nutrition, impaired physical functioning, depression, and cognitive impairment.
o Many older adults are at risk for under-nutrition, most often protein-calorie malnutrition, also known as protein-energy malnutrition.
o Older adults may respond to loneliness, depression, and boredom by not eating.
o Diminished senses of taste and smell often result in a loss of desire for food, and poor dental status can affect their ability to chew.
o The risk for dehydration is greater in older adults because of many factors, including diuretics, incontinence concerns, and decreased thirst mechanism.
• Decreased MOBILITY
o Exercise and activity are important for older adults as a means of promoting and maintaining health.
o Teach older adults about the benefits of regular physical exercise.