Describe how you will measure the variables, including the level of measurement for each variable.

CIGEVER Ever smoked a cigarette 67.0%
The sample in this study is _____ % male and _____ % female.
Write a brief sentence describing the pattern of drug use by those surveyed in this study. Hint: Which drugs are more frequently used than others? Try using the data (%) in your description.

That’s it! You have just completed a brief univariate data analysis. Now continue on to bivariate analysis.
Bivariate Analysis
As noted above, bivariate analysis begins to let us examine relationships between variables and answer some basic research questions. For example, just using the variables listed in the univariate analysis, we can compare drug use between males and females.
That is exactly what we are going to do using the “crosstabulation” command. This statistical technique allows us to test if there is a relationship between SEX of respondents and whether they ever tried the drugs listed in our study. At this stage, we can begin to develop hypotheses as to what we expect to find.
H1: Females are more likely than males to have ever smoked a cigarette. [My independent variable is SEX (male, female) and my dependent variable is ever smoked a cigarette (yes, no).]
Now, write one hypothesis using SEX and one of the other dependent variables.
You should still have the univariate tables on your screen. Minimize the screen and you should return to the analysis page, where you listed the short names in the row. If not, backtrack until you are at this place. Now, do the following on the analysis page:
ROW: delete only the variable short name “irsex” – leave the other short names here
COLUMN: irsex
PERCENTAGING: check ONLY the column box; uncheck others
Click “run the table”
Once again you have created a lot of information. Now, you can see that we learn what percentage of males and females have ever tried the various drugs in our study.
Using the data from the tables you just created, complete the following table. Be very careful to extract the correct information.

% “yes” male % “yes” female

Reexamine the hypothesis you wrote in the earlier step. Were you right? Was I right? Explain.
Are there any patterns that you can find in these data on SEX and drug use? Explain using the data, comparing the percentages.

#24: Final Project: Research Proposal, Due Date: 06-AUG-2017

Look for articles on your topic in the EC Library database under SOCINDEX, PsycINFO, JSTOR, and other research databases. You should have a minimum of 10 research references—online websites of reputable agencies such as the U.S. government, universities, public media, and international organizations will work; however, Wikipedia and other non-research oriented websites and references will not do.

Be sure to highlight the main findings against each study you include in the literature review. The literature review will help you identify an area of research not yet covered by previous studies, and which you can then develop upon for the research proposal in your final paper.

The review should be submitted in APA format, in a 2–3 page Microsoft Word document to the appropriate dropbox.

#25: Final Project: Submission, Due Date: 13-AUG-2017

This module will give you a better understanding of how to write a research proposal. What are the most important components of a research proposal? Have you included them in your Final Project?
Your final research proposal, between 8–10 pages (2,000–2,500 words) in length, typed in double-space and in 12-point font, and in adherence to the APA format, is due at the end of Module 8.
Be sure to submit your research proposal in a single Word document to the appropriate assignment dropbox.
Before you submit this assignment to the dropbox below, be sure to upload a copy to the “Final” dropbox for this assignment on  A “Draft” dropbox is also available so that you can use the originality report provided as a learning tool to improve your work prior to final submission.

Evaluation criteria
This assignment will be graded using the SLA Writing Rubric [227.3 KB PDF file]
Keep the following points in mind:
An appropriate topic has been selected.
The hypothesis(es) stated are testable.
The concepts have been appropriately operationalized.
The independent and dependent variables have been correctly identified.
The proposal is detailed and is sufficiently clear to form the basis for a research.
In this course, you have been assigned a Final Project instead of a Final Exam. Your Final Project is to develop a research proposal that will address a hypothesis of interest in your field of study. Although you will not collect data, the proposal should be of sufficient detail and clarity that you (or someone else) could do the research following the proposal description.
The following points should be addressed in your proposal. These steps can be used as an outline for the proposal or the items can be integrated throughout the paper.
State the general problem area and why your topic is important.
Briefly discuss two or three previous studies in the area.
State the specific hypothesis(es) that you wish to examine.
Operationalize your concepts and identify the independent variable and dependent variable in the hypothesis.
Describe how you will measure the variables, including the level of measurement for each variable.
Discuss the reliability and validity of your measurements, if known. If unknown, describe how you will assess the reliability and validity of your measurements.
Describe the research design you will use to collect and analyze your data.
Discuss your proposed participants and how you plan to recruit, including the type of sampling design you will use.
What type of data collection technique will you use and why?
What kind of data analysis do you plan to use?
What variables, if any, will you control for and why?
What, if any, ethical considerations may be relevant for your project and how do you plan to handle these issues?