300 words each need 1 amp 2 amp 3 in different docs please follow apa and references

1)Chapter Nine (9) – Stakeholder engagement in policy development: Observations and lessons from the international experience: Provides a starting point for a better understanding about how different approaches, tools, and technologies can support effective stakeholder participation in policy development processes. In addition, we have seen how participatory policy-making involves stakeholders from various stages of the policy process and can focus on both the substance of the policy problem or on improving the tools and processes of policy development. The chapter examined five (5) international cases of stakeholder engagement in policy development to explore two questions: (a) what types of engagement tools and processes are useful for different stakeholders and contexts? (b) what factors support the effective use of particular tools and technologies for constructive outcomes? The cases address e-government strategic planning in a developing country, energy policy in a transitional economy, development of new technology and policy innovations in global trade, exploration of tools for policy-relevant evidence in early childhood decision-making, and the development of indicators for evaluating policy options in urban planning (pg 177; para3 – abstract extract).

Q2: Chapter Nine (9) fig 9.1; illustrates Stakeholder Engagement in policy development. From this illustration please identify and name the six (6) critical stages of the policy process, and provide a brief narrative of what happens at each stage?

  • identify and name the six (6) critical stages of the policy process
  • provide a short and clear narrative of what happens at each stage to support your responses,
  • provide substantive feedback to three other colleague’s response to the DF questions,
  • DON’T COPY and PASTE responses into the DF from textbooks and any other digital Internet sources,
  • 1.25 points will be earned for correct responses

2)Policymakers are tasked with making decisions on issues characterized as wicked problems because of controversies, unknown relationships between causes and consequences, and uncertain futures.

From this perspective, Moody and Gerrits (2015) think that it’s desired to get decisions mapped ahead of the possible outcomes prior to the actual decision-making because that would generate certainty in ambiguous situations. Looking closely at the Technological perceptions, technology is thought to revolve around humans. It reflects on questions of who drives technology.

Q1: Please identify and name a few of those questions discussed in this debate and provide a brief explanation around your thoughts?

  • identify and name five (5) of the few questions discussed in the debate
  • provide a short and clear narrative for each question identified to support your responses,

3)From the chapter, we learned that the pattern of behavior arises from fundamental psychology and in particular, the following: a) our capacity for habitual behavior, b) the difference between intelligence as the manifestation of the coping mode of cognition and understanding as the manifestation of the pervasive optimization mode, and c) the phenomenon of authoritarianism as the need for external authority through a lack of understanding of one’s living environment.

On the same line of thought, Andringa (2015), stated that the combination of these phenomena leads to a formal definition – the Bureaucratic Dynamic – and this is where the prevalence of coercive formalization scales with what the author terms as “institutional ignorance” – a measure of how well workers understand the consequences of their own actions both within the organization as well as the wider society…

Q1: In conclusion, the author presents a view that most people may agree with – that “All human activities benefit from some form of formalization, and that formalization allows automating routine tasks, to agree on how to collaborate, determine when and how tasks should be executed, and when they are finished.” The author offers a key reason(s) why procedures should not be changed too often. What are those reasons? Provide a brief explanation.

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